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History 131: U.S. History since 1877

Help in finding a photograph from US History post-Reconstruction and sources for your analysis.

Welcome to Research for History 131!

African American women sitting on steps

Four African American women seated on steps of building at Atlanta University, Georgia. [1899 or 1900.] Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963. Du Bois albums of photographs of African Americans in Georgia exhibited at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. ppmsca 08778 //

Welcome to your History 131 course guide for US History since Reconstruction! The links on the left side of this page are there to find your historical image, along with ebooks, and journal articles to help you place that image in its historical context as part of your analysis.  

No guide can include every possible resource you might need for your specific topic, so do not hesitate to reach out for help from me or your professor. You see my contact information to the right with email and chat options. If you have a complex question or need to search multiple resources, we will set up an appointment via Zoom. 

We may be doing everything remotely but that should not stop you from finding what you need. 

Key Concepts that apply to all history research: 

  • Use appropriate terminology (World War I was the "Great War" at the time since we didn't know there would be a second world war.)
  • Ethnic and racial group references have transformed over time (e.g., Native Americans has replaced the term Indians. Indians is now reserved in scholarly works to refer to South Asians from the nation of India.) 
  • Time periods can be vague so try to be fairly broad ("19th century" instead of 1849-1879) unless you are looking at a specific event such as a protest march.  
  • Scholars will have preferred ways to reference an event, place, or person but there is not any hard and fast rule.  
  • Primary sources demonstrate the stereotypes and prejudices of the time, especially in the popular press or during times of conflict. 
  • Propaganda or material created by those in power are biased and frequently distorts facts regarding those without power.
  • Give appropriate credit in your citation and comply with usage restrictions. 
    • Most sources allow use for educational purpose as long as cited or a particular condition is met. See Zapatistas! Anti-copyright statement and Creative Commons as examples.) 
    • Some sources will clearly state they cannot be used without paying a fee (e.g., Getty Images)
    • The image must be from the original source (NOT Wikipedia, Pinterest or Google Images...) 
    • Any information you use to help you write about the photograph should be from a quality scholarly article or book. 
  • Be a critical consumer, just because it is the first link you get in your search does not mean it is the best.