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History 352: History of Mexico, Past and Present

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style includes two systems of source citation: notes and bibliography or author-date. Typically notes and bibliography format is preferred by the humanities while author-date format is preferred by sciences and social sciences.

You can review the below examples for basic information on how to cite in Chicago, but we recommend consulting the complete manual for other specific types of citation formatting.

Helpful Links:

In-Text Citations: Notes and Bibliography

Notes and Bibliography Style (NB)

This format uses superscript numbers within the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote, whenever a source is quoted or paraphrased and is placed after punctuation. Footnotes are located at the foot of a page while endnotes are located at the end of a paper. 

Community music looks to a more democratic and participatory model while defining institutions as hierarchical and authoritarian.¹


       1. Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music," Philosophy of Music Education Review 24, no. 2 (2016): 127, https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/stable/10.2979/philmusieducrevi.24.2.01

According to Kertz-Welzel, community music is being help up by "old-fashioned ideas and stereotypes about music teaching, schools, research, and higher education."¹


       1. Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music," Philosophy of Music Education Review 24, no. 2 (2016): 127, https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/stable/10.2979/philmusieducrevi.24.2.01

Refer to the manual for the following:

In-Text Citations: Author-Date Style

Author-Date Style (AD)

This format uses parentheses to cite within a text, rather than using notes, and includes the author’s last name, publication date, and page number(s).

One researcher found that community music looks to a more democratic and participatory model while defining institutions as more hierarchical and authoritarian (Kertz-Welzel 2016, 127).

According to Kertz-Welzel, community music is being help up by "old-fashioned ideas and stereotypes about music teaching, schools, research, and higher education" (2016, 127).

Refer to the manual for the following: