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Citations

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style includes two systems of source citation: notes and bibliography or author-date. Typically notes and bibliography format is preferred by the humanities while author-date format is preferred by sciences and social sciences.

You can review the below examples for basic information on how to cite in Chicago, but we recommend consulting the complete manual for other specific types of citation formatting.

Helpful Links:

In-text Citations: Notes and Bibliography Style

Notes and Bibliography Style (NB)

This format uses superscript numbers within the text, which corresponds to a footnote or endnote, whenever a source is quoted or paraphrased and is placed after punctuation. Footnotes are located at the foot of a page while endnotes are located at the end of a paper. 

Community music looks to a more democratic and participatory model while defining institutions as hierarchical and authoritarian.¹


       1. Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music," Philosophy of Music Education Review 24, no. 2 (2016): 127, https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/stable/10.2979/philmusieducrevi.24.2.01

According to Kertz-Welzel, community music is being help up by "old-fashioned ideas and stereotypes about music teaching, schools, research, and higher education."¹


       1. Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Daring to Question: A Philosophical Critique of Community Music," Philosophy of Music Education Review 24, no. 2 (2016): 127, https://www-jstor-org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/stable/10.2979/philmusieducrevi.24.2.01

Refer to the manual for the following:

In-text Citations: Author-Date Style

Author-Date Style (AD)

This format uses parentheses to cite within a text, rather than using notes, and includes the author’s last name, publication date, and page number(s).

One researcher found that community music looks to a more democratic and participatory model while defining institutions as more hierarchical and authoritarian (Kertz-Welzel 2016, 127).

According to Kertz-Welzel, community music is being help up by "old-fashioned ideas and stereotypes about music teaching, schools, research, and higher education" (2016, 127).

Refer to the manual for the following:

Bibliography / References

In Notes and Bibliography style the list of sources are titled Bibliography.

See Chicago Manual of Style starting with section 14.61 for a comprehensive list on formatting a variety of sources. Selections:

Book:

Book Chapter: 

Ebooks: 

Journal Article: 


In Author-Date style the list of sources are titled References.

As stated in the manual, "...examples in chapter 14 can be adapted to the author-date system simply by moving the year of publication to follow the author’s name (see 15.3)." For a list of additional sources not covered, refer to chapter 15: Author-Date References, particularly starting with section 15.32. 

Formatting a Chicago Style Paper

Turabian

Turabian (also referred to as Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations) is the shortened student version of Chicago style meant for research papers that are not intended for publication. It also covers the student research and writing process in addition to paper formatting rules. Both manuals are compatible and are the official Chicago style.